Constitution Day: November 26
Constitution Day is a public holiday in Mongolia.
Mongolians celebrate on November 26 the creation of the constitution of Mongolia as a Republic in 1924. Ending the 17th century, most of Mongolia was ruled by the Qing Dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, Mongolians declared independence from China. However, Mongolia still had to wait and fight until 1921 to establish its official independence, and until 1924 to proclaim itself as a Republic.
History of Constitution Day in Mongolia
With the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Bogd Khaan declared independence for Mongolia in 1911. At the same time, the newly-established Republic of China claimed that Mongolia was part of its own territory. After the October Revolution in Russia in 1919, Chinese troops occupied Mongolia. As an aftermath of the Russian Civil War, Russian adventurer Baron Ungern led his army into Mongolia in October 1920, defeating the Chinese in early February 1921. Russian Government considered Ungern as a threat, so the Bolshevik Russia supported the rise and establishment of a communist Mongolian government and army. The new Mongolian army took the remaining parts occupied by the Chinese on March 18, 1921. Mongolia’s independence was declared once again on July 11, 1921. In the following three years, through violent struggles, Soviet influence got even stronger. After Bogd Khaan’s death, the Mongolian People’s Republic was proclaimed on November 26, 1924.
Mongolia’s Constitution Day Traditions, Customs and Activities
This day sometimes isn’t celebrated as a day off from work. A new constitution was established in Mongolia in 1992, removing the “People’s Republic” from the country’s name. That action has taken away some of the importance of the holiday for the country and Mongolians. Regardless, this day may be celebrated by some as a remembrance of the days that Mongolia lived under the shadow of the Soviet Union.